In the first instalment in this article series on ‘purpose’, Peter Heslam surveyed some research. It shows that, although purpose is widely regarded as essential to business success, it plays little role in practice. He argued, in response, that companies need to do three things: radically realign their strategies and operations with their purpose; exercise greater integrity and authenticity; and be more certain about their purpose. In this article he looks at how some of the thought leaders in this field understand purpose. Although they reflect Christian values, he suggests ultimate purpose requires a theological starting-point.